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Paper 1 Assessment of Applicability of Stregnth Criteria for Rock and Rock Mass to Coal Pillars. Pages 1-8 
V S Vutukuri and S M F Hossani, Univesity of NSW, Kensington, Australia.

Paper 2 A Method of Establishing site specific Coal Pillar Design Guidelines. Pages 9-12
W J Gale and K W Mills, Strata Control Technlogy Pty Ltd, Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Paper 3 Strata Mechanics of Pillar Extraction Goaf Edges. Page 13-21
J Shepherd amd V L Chaturvedula, ACIRL Ltd, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Paper 4 Rock Mass Classification as an Aid to Estimating the Stregnth of Coal Pillars. Pages 22-29
R Trueman, CSRIO, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, I G T, Thin and D B Tyler, Cambone school of mines, Cornwall, UK

Paper 5 A Study on Stress Distribution and Reasonable Size of a coal Pillar in a Coal. Pages 30-37
H C Li and Q.P. Wang, China University Of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou and Y.H Quan, Zhaozhuang Mining Bureau, Sandong, China

Paper 6 Evaluating Coal Pillar Mechanics Through Field Measurements. Pages 38-47
A Lannacchione, and C Mark, USBM, Pittsburge, PA, USA

Paper 7 Critical Appraisal of Pillar Design as Required by Coal Mines Regulation of Inia Vis-A-Vis Rock Latest Rock Mechanics Formulae. Pages 48-57
S Sharma, T N Singh, and D P Singh, Banaras Hindu, Univesity, Varnasi, India

Paper 8 Sidewall Fracturing in Coal Room and Pillar, and Pillar extraction Panels. Pages 58-65
A Vervoot, Chamber of Mines, Johannesburg, SouthAfrica.

Paper 9 Design of Yield Pillars in the Southern Coal Field of New South Whales. Pages 66-71
V K Chaturvedula ACIRL Ltd, Sydney, NSW, and A K BHattacharyya, University of NSW, Kensington, NSW, Australia

Paper 10 Pillar Design in Bump-Prone Deep Western U.S Coal Mines. Pages 72-83
N P Kripakov and R O Kneisley, USBM, Denver, USA.

Paper 11 Elasto-Plasticd Finite Element Strucual Stability Analysis of Room and Pillar Mine Workings. Pages 84-91
R N Singh, Univesity of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Paper 12 Scale Model Studies to Investigate the Effect of Various Stress Fields on the Stability of Pillars Between Mine Roadways. Pages 92-98
N G Terezopolous, Royal School of Mines, London and S F Smith, University of Nottingham, UK.

Paper 13 Historical Perspective and Future Projection of Longwall Mining in the United States. Pages 99-108
T M Barczak, USBM, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Paper 14 Analysis of Longwall Shields and their Interaction with Surrounding Strata in a Deep Coal Mine. Pages 109-116
D W Park and Y M Jiang, The Univesity of Alabama, F Carr and G W Hendon, Jim Walter Resources, Alabama, AL, USA

Paper 15 In-Situ Performance Analysis of Immediate Forward Support (IFS) Systems in This-Medium Seam Sections in the United Kingdom. Pages 117-130
P N Freeman, Meco International Marketing Lld, U.K and P O’Grady, Barret, Fuller, & Partners, Sydney, Australia.

Paper 16 Australian Longwall Geomechanics – A Recent Study. Pages 131-139
R C Frith, A M Steward and D Price, ACIRL Ltd, Wollongong NSW, Australia.

Paper 17 Strata-Support Interaction on a powered Support Longwall Face Under a massive Dolerite Sill – A study. Pages 140-149
R N Gupta and A K Ghose, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India.

Paper 18 Geotechnical Constraints on a 6.0m Single Pass longwall Face. Pages 150-154
R Seedsman, Coffey Partners International, Sydney, NSW, and N Gordon, ACIRL Ltd, Australia.

Paper 19 Predicting of Longwall Support Loading at Southern Collery, Queensland. Pages 155-159
G Klenowski, Capricorn, Coal Management Pty Ltd, QLD, B Ward, Shell Company of Australia, K E Mcnabb, Mincad Systems Pty Ltd, Vic and G Dyer, Capricorn Coal Management Pty Ltd, Qld, Australia

Paper 20 Pressure Distrubution of 2-Leg Shield Supports. Pages 160-69
R Pothini Island Creek Coal Co, WV H S Chiang and SS Peng, West Virginia Univesity, MorganTown, WV, USA

Paper 21 A Simple Finite Element Model of Predicting the Behaviour of Hydraulically Powered Coalmine Supports. Pages 170-176
B G D Smart and P W H Olden, Heriot-Watt Univesity, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Paper 22 Surface and Borehole Microseismic Monitoring of Longwall Faces; their Potential for Three Dimensional Fracture Imaging and the Geo-Mechanical Implications. Pages 177-192
P Styles, I Bishop and S Toon, Univesity of Liverpool, UK and Trueman R, CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia

Paper 23 Rigid or Yielding Roof Bolts: At the face or Away from the Face. Pages 193-203
R D Lama, Kemble Coal & Coke Pty Ltd, Wollongong, Australia and B Z Amusin, VINIMI, St Petersburg, Russia.

Paper 24 An Assessment of Rockbolting in Geologically Disturbed Mine Roadways. Pages 204-211
E Akyol, D J Reddish and B N Whittaker, Univesity of Nottingham, UK

Paper 25 Load Transfer Mechanisms in Reinforcing Tendons. Pages 212-219
M W Fabjanczyk and G C Tarrant, Strata Control Technology Pty Ltd, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Paper 26 Innovative Rock Reinforcements Hardware. Pages 220-229
D F Howarth and M T Renwick, BHP Engineering, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Paper 27 Innovative Ground Support Systems. Pages 230-235
P A Gray, BHP Engineering, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Paper 28 A New Rock Bolting Concept for Underground Roadways. Pages 236-239
G Skybey, Du Pont (Australia) LTD, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Paper 29 Design Considerations for Cable Truss Secondary Supports in Roadways of Underground Collieries. Pages 240-248
P O’Grady and P G Fuller, Barret, FUller & Partners, Sydney NSW, Australia

Paper 30 Influence of Bolts on Discountinuities and Yielding Rock-Conceptual. Pages 249-254
B Indranatna, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Paper 31 Monitoring Indicies for the Support Sournding Strata System on a Longwall Face. Pages 255-262
M G Qian, F L He, and D R Zhu, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.

Paper 32 Deformation of Retreat Gateroad in Inter-panel Pillar System. Pages 263-271
K Matsui and M Ichinose, Kyushu Univesity, Japan, and K Gotoh and T Tsuru, Matsushima Coal Mining Co Ltd, Fukuoka, Japan

Paper 33 Optimisation of Reinforcement Design of Coal Mine Roadways. Pages 272-279
Wj Gale, M W. Fabjanczyk, GC Tarrant and RJ Guy, Strata Control Technology Pty LTD, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Paper 34 How to Cope with Cutter Roof Problem. Pages 280-288
A Wahab Khair, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA

Paper 35 Horizontal Stress Control in Underground Coal Mines. Pages 289-296
S M Mathews J.A Nemcik and W J Gale, Strata Control Technology Pty Ltd, Wollngong, NSW, Australia

Paper 36 A Study of Floor Heave in the Mines of the Southern Coalfield of NSW. Pages 297-301
A K Bhattacharyya, The University of NSW and S P Seneviratne, Tranby Co-Operative College for Aboriginies NSW Australia

Paper 37 Ground Control Hazarz Analysis in Multi-steam Mining. Pages 302-307
R Fraher, C Haycocks and M Karmis, Virginia Polytechnial and state University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA and Y Zhou, Nanying Technical Univesity, Singapore

Paper 38 Convergence and load Measurements in an Underground Mine in Turkiye. Pages 308-313
A G Pasamehmetoglu, METU, Ankara, Turkiye, M M Yesil, DJ Douglas, and Partners Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia, and T Bozdeg, METU, Ankara, Turkiye.

Paper 39 Detailed Underground Measurements of Roof Deflection and Bed Separation. Pages 314-321
A Vervoot, B Jack, F Jackson and G ProHaska, Chamber of Mines, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Paper 40 Subsurface Fracture Developments due to Longwall Mining in its Interpereationusing Image Process Techniquies. Pages 322-333
G X Sun, D J Reddish and B N Whittaker, University of Nottingham, UK.

Paper 41 Characterization of Overburden Responce to Longwall Mining in the Western United States. Pages 334-344
K Y Haramy and A J Fejes, USBM, Denver, CO, USA.

Paper 42 Continuous Monitoring of a Mechnized Breaker Line Supports to Investigate Roof and Pillar Behaviour. Pages 345-350
I L Follingtonm R Trueman, T P Medhurst and I N Nutchison, CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Paper 43 Numerical Modelling of a Monitorering Site in an Underground Coal Mine in the Bowen Basin. Pages 351-357
M E Duncan Fama, R Trueman and T P Medhurst, CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Paper 44 Reformation of the Hydraulic-Swoting Mining Method. Pages 358-370
L yinhaui, K Fengyi and K Bingwen, Fuxin, Coal Mines, Liaoning China.

Paper 45 A Study on the High-Water Solidying Materials For Gob-Along Roadside Instead of Coal Pillars. Pages 371-375
Y Qui, H Sun, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing and J Yin, Hebi, Mining Adminstration Bureau, Henen Province, China.

Paper 46 Geological Sencing – The Key to Increasing Miner Safety. Pages 376-383
J R M Hill and R C Briggs, USBM, Spokane, Washington DC, USA

Paper 47 Cemented Backfill in Two Italian Massive Orebodies. Pages 384-396
M Congiu and E Fiavoranti Societa Italiana Mienire, Sardinia, Italy W Helms, and W Knissel , Technishe, Univesitat Clausthal Institut fur Bergbaukunde und Bergwirtshaftslehre, Germany, S Lai, P Licheri and D Lipari, Sociesta Italiana Miniere, Sardinia, Italy, P P Manca, G Massacci and G Rossi, University of Cagliari Sardinia, Italy.

Paper 48 A Possible Alternative to Hardwood Chock Pieces. Pages 397-406
B G D Smart, Heriot-Watt University, Scotland, D A Brock, formerly The University of Strathclyde, Scotland, D Thompson, Formerly with Mallinson Denny(scotland) LTD, and J Somerville, Heriot-Watt University, Scotland.

Paper 49 Ground Control Techiques Utilizing Grid Structures. Pages 407-413
B E Travis, Tensair Earth Technologies Inc, Morrow, Georgia, USA.

Paper 50 Application of DDM to some Rock Pressure Problems in Japnese Deep Coal Mines. Pages 414-420
Y Fujii, Y Ishijima, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, and T Goto, and Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan.

Paper 51 Evalution of the Strength Behaviour of Monolithic Packs. Pages 421-431
S I AI-Amean, University of Nottingham, U K and RN Singh, University of Wollongong. NSW. Australia

Paper 52 Probabilistic Stability Analysis of Embankments and Slopes. Pages 432 437
R A Halatchev University of Mining and Geology, Sofia, Bulgaria

Paper 53 Application of Tailing Sand and Water as Backfill Material in Metal Mines. Pages 438-442
H Sun, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing, China, H Jainmin, Northern, Jiaotong University, Beijing, China, and L Shuquqn, China, University, of Mining Science & technology, Beijing, China.

Paper 54 Subsidence Prediction from the Beginning – Collie Coal Basin. Pages 443-451
I Misich, Western Collieries LTD, WA, and A Evans, Curtin, University, Collie, WA and O Jones, Brodie-Hall Research Centre, Kalgoorie, WA, Australia

Paper 55 Mining Subsidence of an Urban Area in Ipswitch Queensland. Pages 452-461
D J Maconochie, Hollingsworth Dames & Moore, QLD, L Wardie, Mincad Systems Pty Ltd, QLD, and G Wright, Bornhorst and Ward, QLD, Australia.

Paper 56 Investigation of Subsidence Event over Multiple Seam Mining Area. Pages 462-465
K K Kohli, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Paper 57 Classification of Mine Related Subsidence East of Mississippi River, USA. Pages 466-474
J L Craft, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Paper 58 Influence of the Sloping of Ground Surfaces on Mine Subsidence. Pages 475-482
D M Shu Kembla Coal & Coke Pty Ltd, Wollongong and A K Bhattacharyya, The University of NSW, Kensington, Australia.

Paper 59 Effects of Subsidence on Steep Topography and Cliff Lines. Pages 483-490
D R Kay, Department of Minerals Resources, Sydney, NSW, and J P Carter, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

Paper 60 The Effectiveness of Interpanel Pillars in the Control of Surface Subsidence. Pages 491-498
L Holla, NSW Department of Minterals and Energy, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Paper 61 Cross-Well Acoustic Tomography to Locate Abandoned Underground Mines and Subsidence Failure. Pages 499-505
L K Killoran, USBM, Denver, CO, USA

Paper 62 Three-Dimensional Numerical Modelling of Effects of Subsidence on Escarpments. Pages 506-510
L J Wardle and K E McNabb, Mincad Systems Pty Ltd, VIC, Australia.

Paper 63 A Comprehensive Computer Model for Predicting Dynamic Subsidence for Longwall Operations. Pages 511-516
Y Luo and S S Peng, West Virginia University, MorganTown, WV, USA

Paper 64 Development of void Diffusion Models to Predict Subsidence Due to Underground Coal Mining. Pages 517-525
Q W Hao and Y P Chugh, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, USA

Paper 65 Application of a Simplified 3-Dimensional Roof-Pillar-Floor- Interaction Analysis Model for Subsidence Prediction. Pages 526-533
W M Pytel and Y P Chugh, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, USA

Paperr 66 A Design Approach for a Swelling Rock in an Underground Mine In Turkiye. Pages 534-539
A G Pasamehmetoglu, METU, Turkiye, M M Yesil, D J Douglas and Partners Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia, and T Bozdag, METU, Ankara, Turkiye

Paper 67 Study of the Impact of Mining under Massive Roof at Datong Coal Mines. Pages 540-547
S Y Jin and X LinSheng, Datong Coal Mining Administration, Shanxi, China.

Paper 68 Week Claystone Floors and their Implications to Pillar Design and Settlement. Pages 548-555
R Seedsman, Coffey Partners International Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW and N Gordan, ACIRL Ltd, Australia.

Paper 69 A Method for Determination of Stregnth of Coal Mass. Pages 556-561
G Junfeng and Y Qixiang, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhuo, Jiangsu, China.

Paper 70 A Study on Application of Comprehensive Rock Mechanical Properties and Geological Characteristics in Coal Mines. Pages 562-567
X LinSheng and S Y Jin, Datong Coal Mining Administration, Shanxi, China.

Paper 71 The Mechanical Property of Coal Containing Gas. Pages 568-574
Y Yuping, Hangzhou, Environment Protection Research Institute, CCMRI, Xiaoshan, Zhejiang, and Z Shining, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhuo, China

Paper 72 The Rheological Fracture Properties and Outburst Mechanism of Coal Containing Gas. Pages 575-579
X He and Z Shining, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhuo, China

Paper 73 Investigation and Analysis of Sudden Outbursts of Gas During Driving Mine Roadways. Pages 580-587
U Bajzeij, J Likar, B Janezic, and F Zigman, Rudarski Institut Ljubljiana, Slovenia.

Paper 74 A Casting Method for Artificial Rock Specimens. Pages 588-592
D Z Gu and G R Mostyn, The University of NSW, Kensington, NSW, Australia

Paper 75 Progress in ther Knowledge of Granite Cutting with Diamond Wire. Pages 593-599
A Bortolussi A Caranassios, R Ciccu, R Lassandro, P P Manca and G Massaccasi, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.

Paper 76 A Simple Method of Measuring Rock Fracture Toughness Using the Brazillian Test Method. Pages 600-611
H Guo, BHP Mt. Newman Mining Operations, WA and N I Aziz, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Paper 77 Mine Stability Evaluation from Micro-Seismic Activity. Pages 612-617
B R A Wood and R W Harris, CSIRO, Sydney, Australia.

Paper 78 The Responce of Massive Structures inferred from Tidal Tilt Monitoring. Pages 618-623
D P Blair, BRA Wood and R W Harris, CSIRO, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Paper 79 Optimisation of Bench Blast Design with the Aid of Computer. Pages 624-630
W Wu, University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.

Paperr 80 The Directional Drill Monitoring for Long hole Gas Dralnage in Coal Mines. Pages 631-635
G Skybey, Du Pont (Australia) Ltd Sydney, NSW Australia

Paper 81 Effects of Drilling Fluid Composition on Penetration Rate. Pages 636-643
G Rossi and P Trois, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.

Paperr 82 Prediction of Rock Cutting Performance Using Fracture Mechanics Principles-A Rewview. Pages 644-651
G Sun, B N Whittaker, University of Nottingham, UK, R N Singh, The University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia and M D Waller, University of Nottingham, UK

Paper 83 Investigation into Cutting Characteristic Of Indian Coal Seams. Pages 652-659
T N Singh, R Singh and J K Singh, Central Mining Research Station, Dhanbad, India.

Paper 84 Prediction of Shearer Cutting Performance. Pages 660-666
D L Price, ACIRL Ltd, Australia, and I C Jeffrey, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Paper 85 Sub-surface Cracks Due to Disc Cutter Spacing for Improved Rock Breakage and Ground Control. Pages 667-675
N I Aziz, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia, and H Guo, BHP Mt. Newman Mining Operations, WA, Australia.

Index Of Authors Pages 676

Keynote and Special Papers
Applied Rock Mechanics Mining Geomechanics Pillar Design
Roadway Stability Support Design
Longwall Mining Subsidence
Tunnelling Technology Slope Stability
Computer Applications Numerical Modelling
Instrumentation and Monitoring Dynamic Phenomena
  • 21st Century Higher Production Coal Mining Systems SynoisuimE.Y. Baafi

    Keynote Adress

    • Paper 1 A view of Underground Coal Mining in the 21st Century – L.V. Wade

    Future Mining Systems

    • Paper 2 Canadas Program for Innovations In Mining Technology in the 21st Century – J.Pathak
    • Paper 3 Developments in Underground Coal Mining Technloogy and Their Impliacations – R.D Lama
    • Paper 4 A Philosophical Approach to 21st Century Coal Mine Planning – D. Tague, N.I.A Aziz and E.Y Baafi
    • Paper 5 Economic Effects of Increased Productivity – Higher Profits or Lower Prices? – E Eames and K. Tronson

    High Production Underground Mining Systems

    • Paper 6 Towards 40,000 Tonnes/Day Workings – Demoulin, Raffoux, and Vidalinc
    • Paper 7 Acheiving 435-2540 Tonnes Per Shift from Continuous Miner Sections, a Report on the U.S.A’s Most Productive Coal Mines – S.J Page, J.C Volkwein and F.N. Kissel
    • Paper 8 Gretket Colliery Miniwall Mining Systems – M.W. Simes and J.B McKendry
    • Paper 9 Continuous Haulage – The Coal and Allied Experience – T.Stay and A. Lennox


    • Paper 10 Development in Geosciences for Overcoming the Constrains on Higher Production Underground Mining – L holla and A. Lennox
    • Paper 11 Premining Investigations for the Prediction of Hazards Ahead of Faces – J. Hanes
    • Paper 12 Long-Hole Drilling for In-Seam Exploration – R.J. WIlliams and F. Hungerford
    • Paper 13 Developments in Geophysics for Prediction of Structures Influencing Production in Mines – P.J Hatherlly

    Rock Mechanics

    • Paper 14 Strata Control Considerations for Improved Mine Roadway and Panel Driveage Rates –W.J. Gale, M.W. Fabjanczyk, J.A Nemcik and S.M. Mathews
    • Paper 15 Basic Mechanism of Strata Fractures Formation and Expansion Around Mine Working – C. Jeger
    • Paper 16 Rational Longwall Layout Design Based on Numerical Stress Analysis – L.J. Wardle and G. Klenowski

    Longwall Systems

    • Paper 17 Parameters Affecting the Shield Support Efficiency in Longwall Mining. – S.S Peng, S.M Hsiung and Y.M Jiang
    • Paper 18 A method of Assessing the Efficiency of Powered Supports In Service – B.G.D. Smart and D.N Bigby
    • Paper 19 Roof Control Technology Under Abnormal Conditions – R. Ruston, R. Lama and M. Cutafani
    • Paper 20 Longwall Coal Cutting Machines – The Future – K. Nienhaus and J. Carthew
    • Paper 21 The Design of a Roadways Support System for Dynamic Loads Tremors – j Szlachta, J. Maloszewski, A. Kidybinski and B. Sawka

    Longwall Systems II

    • Paper 22 Longwall Face Outputs – Present State of the Art – Alternative Future Trends – D.H. Fawcett and G.R Duncan
    • Paper 23 Implications of High Productivity Longwall Systems – M.D Velzeboer

    Surface Mining And Rock Excavation

    • Paper 24 Prediction of Instabilityin Slopes During Opencast Mining over Old Underground Workings in Jharia Coalfield, India –K.K. Gupta, T. Singh and D.P Singh
    • Paper 25 Longwall Punch Mining From Open Cut Highwalls – B.W. Robertson, G. O’Regan and M. McKew
    • Paper 26 Mechanics of Rock Drilling, Cutting and Future Developments – L.C Schmidt, N.I. Aziz and H. Guo

    Computer Applications

    • Paper 27 Computer Based Remote Control of a Highwall Mining System – A.J Kwistowski, W.H Lewis, W.D Mayercheck and M.C Leigh
    • Paper 28 GPSS Computer Simultation of Proposed Undeground Rear Dump Truck Ore Haulage Systems at ZC Mines, Broken Hill – J. Harrison and J.R Sturgul
    • Paper 29 Expert Systems and Coal Mining – V.U Nguyen and E.Y Baafi
    • Paper 30 Rescue – Knowledge Based Expert System for Mine Rescue Operations Based on Gas Analysis – S. Osie-Tutu, E.Y Baafi, and MacKenzie-Wood

    Mine Environment And Safety

    • Paper 31 Advancing Coal Mine Ventilation into the Twenty First Century with High Productivity Mining Systems – A.D.S Gillies
    • Paper 32 Safety Limitations of Longwall Face Advance Rates – L.J Thomas
    • Paper 33 Research on Dust Control for High Production Longwall Mining in Australia – A. Hewitt and R.D. Lama.
    • Paper 34 Parachute Stoppings For Rapid Ventilation Control – P.F. Howlett and M.Buizen

    Gas Emission

    • Paper 35 Will Firedamp Emission Stop Progress in Longwall Production? – C. Jegar
    • Paper 36 The Practical Method of Handling Methane in a Fullu Mechanized High Output Coal Face – D. Guoquan and H. Yuanping
    • Paper 37 Limitations and Requirements of Gas Control Methods for High Production Longwall Mining – L. Lunarzewski, G Mitchell and C. Clarke
    • Paper 38 Towards a Reliable Gas Emission Prediction Method for Australian Longwall Mining – S. Battino, L. Lunarzewski and D. Truong

    Management Issues

    • Paper 39 Asset Management in the U.K Coal Industry – S.M Halder
    • Paper 40 Mining Management in the 21st Century – D.A Clark and C.H Martin
    • Paper 41 The Small Mine – Can it be Competitve? – P.N Benkendorff
    • Paper 42 Reliablity Centered Maintenance for Mining Equipment – U. Kumar and S. Granholm.